Research data suggest that the state of underhydration and its concomitant increase in plasma vasopressin is associate with a higher risk for diabetes and chronic kidney disease. It is also suggested that increase water intake suppresses vasopressin, resulting in improved glucose regulation, lower risk of urinary tract infections, and kidney stones formation.
In both athlete and veteran research, relatively few studies specifically examine the characteristics of, and outcomes for, female participants. Indeed, in most studies, females comprise a small subgroup of the sample, which limits quantitative analyses and generalizability of results. Additionally, there is almost no research on transgender females and nonbinary individuals in these two populations. Studies of female athletes and service members have often focused on sex-related physiological issues, such as menstrual cycle (e.g., Mitchell et al., 2016) and the female triad (e.g., Finley et al., 2015; Kroshus et al., 2018).
Noninvasive brain stimulation is becoming popular within sport as a way to improve motor performance, so much so that this ‘neuro-doping’ may provide a competitive edge in the future of sport.
Sex-gender-sexuality is culturally constructed, a human invention, which we are socialized into – and may embrace or resist - throughout our lives. Much of what we know about the regulation of sex-gender-sexuality and sports centers on individual professional athletes, and technicalities such as testosterone levels.
Athletes are at greater risk of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) due to their continued exposure to increases in intra- abdominal pressure (IAP) throughout the training. General exercises, such as jumping, landing, weight lifting, holding deep breaths, or even coughing, exert different deformations upon the pelvic floor, especially for females and some transgender sportspersons, putting this athletic population at higher risk for pelvic organ prolapse (POP).
The narrative provides an effective communicative means through which we might better understand the mundane ways TGNC athletes navigate sporting contexts. The communicative terms of engagement that TGNC athletes use may and/or may not align with and/or against the historically sedimented sport nexus, which presumes a non-TGNC body and experience.
Many girls who played on boy's sports teams paved the way for girl's teams and programs. They have served as role models for children who might be afraid to pursue something that brands them as different or another.
The other thing that roller derby was about, from the very first—which makes it uniquely different from baseball—was its powerful female athlete-stars, competing with and alongside men. That history isn’t incidental to roller derby’s becoming one of today’s most inclusive sports for gender non-binary athletes.
In the field of physical training, previous studies proved that lighting intensity affects physical training performance significantly. However, most studies were conducted on elite athletes and there were few studies focused on gender difference which limits the opportunity for better training and to create an improved training environment for the general public.